Works Cited

Allen, Tania. Solving Critical Design Problems. Routledge, 2019. Boas, Franz. Race, Language and Culture. The MacMillan Company, New York, 1940. Brownlee, John. “Can Good Graphic Design Help the Homeless?” Fast Company. August 2013 www.fastcompany.com/1673225/can-good-graphic-design-help-the-homeless. Buchanan, Richard. “Wicked Problems in Design Thinking.” The Idea of Design, MIT Press, 1996. Churchman, C West. “Wicked Problems.” Management Science, vol 4, no. 14, 1967. Crouch, Christopher and Jane Pearce. Doing Research in Design. Berg,[...]

The Dimensions of Culture

The framework for the methods found in this toolkit is built upon the six dimensions of culture posited by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede, which were first introduced in his seminal book, Culture’s Consequences, in 1983. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory describes the reciprocal effects of a society’s culture on the values and behavior of its members.  Of course, humans are infinitely complex, but this is simply a model that we[...]

Decolonizing Design

Design is a chimerical tool that empowers humanity to reshape its own existence. It can elevate us through our intrinsic sense of altruism or destroy us through our rapacity. It is an instrument of great triumph and consequence limited only by our imaginations, but in an increasingly globalized world, the effects of this reshaping may not be beneficial for all people. The ethics of design practice are often a question[...]

Cultural Holism

In the late summer of 1977, NASA launched the Voyager space mission. Because of a rare planetary alignment, astronomers had the opportunity to send probes to photograph the distant planets Jupiter and Saturn, which had previously been little more than blurry dots on our most powerful telescopes. The two probes would perform flybys of these planets and transmit their pictures back to Earth before skipping out into the cosmos like[...]

Wicked Constructivism

One of the core tenets of humanity, it seems, is a nearly obsessive urge to solve problems. It doesn’t matter whether these are your problems, somebody else’s, or if they even need to be solved in the first place. We just can’t help ourselves. Most of us cringe at something as benign as a crooked picture frame, and some of the more demented of us even seek advanced degrees in[...]